TCP Routing

TCPRoute provides a way to route TCP requests. When combined with a Gateway listener, it can be used to forward connections on the port specified by the listener to a set of backends specified by the TCPRoute. To learn more about HTTP routing, refer to the Gateway API documentation.

Installation

Follow the steps from the Quickstart guide to install Envoy Gateway and the example manifest. Before proceeding, you should be able to query the example backend using HTTP.

Configuration

In this example, we have one Gateway resource and two TCPRoute resources that distribute the traffic with the following rules:

All TCP streams on port 8088 of the Gateway are forwarded to port 3001 of foo Kubernetes Service. All TCP streams on port 8089 of the Gateway are forwarded to port 3002 of bar Kubernetes Service. In this example two TCP listeners will be applied to the Gateway in order to route them to two separate backend TCPRoutes, note that the protocol set for the listeners on the Gateway is TCP:

Install the GatewayClass and a tcp-gateway Gateway first.

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
kind: GatewayClass
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: eg
spec:
  controllerName: gateway.envoyproxy.io/gatewayclass-controller
---
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: tcp-gateway
spec:
  gatewayClassName: eg
  listeners:
  - name: foo
    protocol: TCP
    port: 8088
    allowedRoutes:
      kinds:
      - kind: TCPRoute
  - name: bar
    protocol: TCP
    port: 8089
    allowedRoutes:
      kinds:
      - kind: TCPRoute
EOF

Install two services foo and bar, which are binded to backend-1 and backend-2.

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: foo
  labels:
    app: backend-1
spec:
  ports:
    - name: http
      port: 3001
      targetPort: 3000
  selector:
    app: backend-1
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: bar
  labels:
    app: backend-2
spec:
  ports:
    - name: http
      port: 3002
      targetPort: 3000
  selector:
    app: backend-2
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: backend-1
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: backend-1
      version: v1
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: backend-1
        version: v1
    spec:
      containers:
        - image: gcr.io/k8s-staging-gateway-api/echo-basic:v20231214-v1.0.0-140-gf544a46e
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          name: backend-1
          ports:
            - containerPort: 3000
          env:
            - name: POD_NAME
              valueFrom:
                fieldRef:
                  fieldPath: metadata.name
            - name: NAMESPACE
              valueFrom:
                fieldRef:
                  fieldPath: metadata.namespace
            - name: SERVICE_NAME
              value: foo
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: backend-2
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: backend-2
      version: v1
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: backend-2
        version: v1
    spec:
      containers:
        - image: gcr.io/k8s-staging-gateway-api/echo-basic:v20231214-v1.0.0-140-gf544a46e
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          name: backend-2
          ports:
            - containerPort: 3000
          env:
            - name: POD_NAME
              valueFrom:
                fieldRef:
                  fieldPath: metadata.name
            - name: NAMESPACE
              valueFrom:
                fieldRef:
                  fieldPath: metadata.namespace
            - name: SERVICE_NAME
              value: bar
EOF

Install two TCPRoutes tcp-app-1 and tcp-app-2 with different sectionName:

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1alpha2
kind: TCPRoute
metadata:
  name: tcp-app-1
spec:
  parentRefs:
  - name: tcp-gateway
    sectionName: foo
  rules:
  - backendRefs:
    - name: foo
      port: 3001
---
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1alpha2
kind: TCPRoute
metadata:
  name: tcp-app-2
spec:
  parentRefs:
  - name: tcp-gateway
    sectionName: bar
  rules:
  - backendRefs:
    - name: bar
      port: 3002
EOF

In the above example we separate the traffic for the two separate backend TCP Services by using the sectionName field in the parentRefs:

spec:
  parentRefs:
  - name: tcp-gateway
    sectionName: foo

This corresponds directly with the name in the listeners in the Gateway:

  listeners:
  - name: foo
    protocol: TCP
    port: 8088
  - name: bar
    protocol: TCP
    port: 8089

In this way each TCPRoute “attaches” itself to a different port on the Gateway so that the foo service is taking traffic for port 8088 from outside the cluster and bar service takes the port 8089 traffic.

Before testing, please get the tcp-gateway Gateway’s address first:

export GATEWAY_HOST=$(kubectl get gateway/tcp-gateway -o jsonpath='{.status.addresses[0].value}')

You can try to use nc to test the TCP connections of envoy gateway with different ports, and you can see them succeeded:

nc -zv ${GATEWAY_HOST} 8088

nc -zv ${GATEWAY_HOST} 8089

You can also try to send requests to envoy gateway and get responses as shown below:

curl -i "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}:8088"

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Date: Tue, 03 Jan 2023 10:18:36 GMT
Content-Length: 267

{
 "path": "/",
 "host": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:8088",
 "method": "GET",
 "proto": "HTTP/1.1",
 "headers": {
  "Accept": [
   "*/*"
  ],
  "User-Agent": [
   "curl/7.85.0"
  ]
 },
 "namespace": "default",
 "ingress": "",
 "service": "foo",
 "pod": "backend-1-c6c5fb958-dl8vl"
}

You can see that the traffic routing to foo service when sending request to 8088 port.

curl -i "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}:8089"

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Date: Tue, 03 Jan 2023 10:19:28 GMT
Content-Length: 267

{
 "path": "/",
 "host": "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:8089",
 "method": "GET",
 "proto": "HTTP/1.1",
 "headers": {
  "Accept": [
   "*/*"
  ],
  "User-Agent": [
   "curl/7.85.0"
  ]
 },
 "namespace": "default",
 "ingress": "",
 "service": "bar",
 "pod": "backend-2-98fcff498-hcmgb"
}                                            

You can see that the traffic routing to bar service when sending request to 8089 port.


Last modified May 25, 2024: fix api wording (#3467) (5bc5e0f)