HTTP Routing

The HTTPRoute resource allows users to configure HTTP routing by matching HTTP traffic and forwarding it to Kubernetes backends. Currently, the only supported backend supported by Envoy Gateway is a Service resource. This guide shows how to route traffic based on host, header, and path fields and forward the traffic to different Kubernetes Services. To learn more about HTTP routing, refer to the Gateway API documentation.

Prerequisites

Follow the steps from the Quickstart guide to install Envoy Gateway and the example manifest. Before proceeding, you should be able to query the example backend using HTTP.

Installation

Install the HTTP routing example resources:

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/envoyproxy/gateway/latest/examples/kubernetes/http-routing.yaml

The manifest installs a GatewayClass, Gateway, four Deployments, four Services, and three HTTPRoute resources. The GatewayClass is a cluster-scoped resource that represents a class of Gateways that can be instantiated.

Note: Envoy Gateway is configured by default to manage a GatewayClass with controllerName: gateway.envoyproxy.io/gatewayclass-controller.

Verification

Check the status of the GatewayClass:

kubectl get gc --selector=example=http-routing

The status should reflect “Accepted=True”, indicating Envoy Gateway is managing the GatewayClass.

A Gateway represents configuration of infrastructure. When a Gateway is created, Envoy proxy infrastructure is provisioned or configured by Envoy Gateway. The gatewayClassName defines the name of a GatewayClass used by this Gateway. Check the status of the Gateway:

kubectl get gateways --selector=example=http-routing

The status should reflect “Ready=True”, indicating the Envoy proxy infrastructure has been provisioned. The status also provides the address of the Gateway. This address is used later in the guide to test connectivity to proxied backend services.

The three HTTPRoute resources create routing rules on the Gateway. In order to receive traffic from a Gateway, an HTTPRoute must be configured with parentRefs which reference the parent Gateway(s) that it should be attached to. An HTTPRoute can match against a single set of hostnames. These hostnames are matched before any other matching within the HTTPRoute takes place. Since example.com, foo.example.com, and bar.example.com are separate hosts with different routing requirements, each is deployed as its own HTTPRoute - example-route, ``foo-route, and bar-route.

Check the status of the HTTPRoutes:

kubectl get httproutes --selector=example=http-routing -o yaml

The status for each HTTPRoute should surface “Accepted=True” and a parentRef that references the example Gateway. The example-route matches any traffic for “example.com” and forwards it to the “example-svc” Service.

Testing the Configuration

Before testing HTTP routing to the example-svc backend, get the Gateway’s address.

export GATEWAY_HOST=$(kubectl get gateway/example-gateway -o jsonpath='{.status.addresses[0].value}')

Test HTTP routing to the example-svc backend.

curl -vvv --header "Host: example.com" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/"

A 200 status code should be returned and the body should include "pod": "example-backend-*" indicating the traffic was routed to the example backend service. If you change the hostname to a hostname not represented in any of the HTTPRoutes, e.g. “www.example.com”, the HTTP traffic will not be routed and a 404 should be returned.

The foo-route matches any traffic for foo.example.com and applies its routing rules to forward the traffic to the “foo-svc” Service. Since there is only one path prefix match for /login, only foo.example.com/login/* traffic will be forwarded. Test HTTP routing to the foo-svc backend.

curl -vvv --header "Host: foo.example.com" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/login"

A 200 status code should be returned and the body should include "pod": "foo-backend-*" indicating the traffic was routed to the foo backend service. Traffic to any other paths that do not begin with /login will not be matched by this HTTPRoute. Test this by removing /login from the request.

curl -vvv --header "Host: foo.example.com" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/"

The HTTP traffic will not be routed and a 404 should be returned.

Similarly, the bar-route HTTPRoute matches traffic for bar.example.com. All traffic for this hostname will be evaluated against the routing rules. The most specific match will take precedence which means that any traffic with the env:canary header will be forwarded to bar-svc-canary and if the header is missing or not canary then it’ll be forwarded to bar-svc. Test HTTP routing to the bar-svc backend.

curl -vvv --header "Host: bar.example.com" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/"

A 200 status code should be returned and the body should include "pod": "bar-backend-*" indicating the traffic was routed to the foo backend service.

Test HTTP routing to the bar-canary-svc backend by adding the env: canary header to the request.

curl -vvv --header "Host: bar.example.com" --header "env: canary" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/"

A 200 status code should be returned and the body should include "pod": "bar-canary-backend-*" indicating the traffic was routed to the foo backend service.

JWT Claims Based Routing

Users can route to a specific backend by matching on JWT claims. This can be achieved, by defining a SecurityPolicy with a jwt configuration that does the following

  • Converts jwt claims to headers, which can be used for header based routing
  • Sets the recomputeRoute field to true. This is required so that the incoming request matches on a fallback/catch all route where the JWT can be authenticated, the claims from the JWT can be converted to headers, and then the route match can be recomputed to match based on the updated headers.

For this feature to work please make sure

  • you have a fallback route rule defined, the backend for this route rule can be invalid.
  • The SecurityPolicy is applied to both the fallback route as well as the route with the claim header matches, to avoid spoofing.
cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: gateway.envoyproxy.io/v1alpha1
kind: SecurityPolicy
metadata:
  name: jwt-example
spec:
  targetRef:
    group: gateway.networking.k8s.io
    kind: HTTPRoute
    name: jwt-claim-routing
  jwt:
    providers:
      - name: example
        recomputeRoute: true
        claimToHeaders:
          - claim: sub
            header: x-sub
          - claim: admin
            header: x-admin
          - claim: name
            header: x-name
        remoteJWKS:
          uri: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/envoyproxy/gateway/main/examples/kubernetes/jwt/jwks.json
---
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: HTTPRoute
metadata:
  name: jwt-claim-routing
spec:
  parentRefs:
    - name: eg
  rules:
    - backendRefs:
        - kind: Service
          name: foo-svc
          port: 8080
          weight: 1
      matches:
        - headers:
            - name: x-name
              value: John Doe
    - backendRefs:
        - kind: Service
          name: bar-svc
          port: 8080
          weight: 1
      matches:
        - headers:
            - name: x-name
              value: Tom
    # catch all
    - backendRefs:
        - kind: Service
          name: infra-backend-invalid
          port: 8080
          weight: 1
      matches:
        - path:
            type: PathPrefix
            value: /
EOF

Get the JWT used for testing request authentication:

TOKEN=$(curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/envoyproxy/gateway/main/examples/kubernetes/jwt/test.jwt -s) && echo "$TOKEN" | cut -d '.' -f2 - | base64 --decode -

Test routing to the foo-svc backend by specifying a JWT Token with a claim name: John Doe.

curl -sS -H "Host: foo.example.com" -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/login" | jq .pod
"foo-backend-6df8cc6b9f-fmwcg"

Get another JWT used for testing request authentication:

TOKEN=$(curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/envoyproxy/gateway/main/examples/kubernetes/jwt/with-different-claim.jwt -s) && echo "$TOKEN" | cut -d '.' -f2 - | base64 --decode -

Test HTTP routing to the bar-svc backend by specifying a JWT Token with a claim name: Tom.

curl -sS -H "Host: bar.example.com" -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN" "http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/" | jq .pod
"bar-backend-6688b8944c-s8htr"

Last modified May 25, 2024: fix api wording (#3467) (5bc5e0f)