Fault Injection

Envoy fault injection can be used to inject delays and abort requests to mimic failure scenarios such as service failures and overloads.

Envoy Gateway supports the following fault scenarios:

  • delay fault: inject a custom fixed delay into the request with a certain probability to simulate delay failures.
  • abort fault: inject a custom response code into the response with a certain probability to simulate abort failures.

Envoy Gateway introduces a new CRD called BackendTrafficPolicy that allows the user to describe their desired fault scenarios. This instantiated resource can be linked to a Gateway, HTTPRoute or GRPCRoute resource.

Prerequisites

Follow the steps from the Quickstart guide to install Envoy Gateway and the example manifest. For GRPC - follow the steps from the GRPC Routing example. Before proceeding, you should be able to query the example backend using HTTP or GRPC.

Install the hey load testing tool

  • The hey CLI will be used to generate load and measure response times. Follow the installation instruction from the Hey project docs.

Configuration

Allow requests with a valid faultInjection by creating an BackendTrafficPolicy and attaching it to the example HTTPRoute or GRPCRoute.

HTTPRoute

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: gateway.envoyproxy.io/v1alpha1
kind: BackendTrafficPolicy
metadata:
  name: fault-injection-50-percent-abort
spec:
  targetRef:
    group: gateway.networking.k8s.io
    kind: HTTPRoute
    name: foo
  faultInjection:
    abort:
      httpStatus: 501
      percentage: 50
---
apiVersion: gateway.envoyproxy.io/v1alpha1
kind: BackendTrafficPolicy
metadata:
  name: fault-injection-delay
spec:
  targetRef:
    group: gateway.networking.k8s.io
    kind: HTTPRoute
    name: bar
  faultInjection:
    delay:
      fixedDelay: 2s
---
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: HTTPRoute
metadata:
  name: foo
spec:
  parentRefs:
  - name: eg
  hostnames:
  - "www.example.com"
  rules:
  - backendRefs:
    - group: ""
      kind: Service
      name: backend
      port: 3000
      weight: 1
    matches:
    - path:
        type: PathPrefix
        value: /foo
---
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: HTTPRoute
metadata:
  name: bar
spec:
  parentRefs:
  - name: eg
  hostnames:
  - "www.example.com"
  rules:
  - backendRefs:
    - group: ""
      kind: Service
      name: backend
      port: 3000
      weight: 1
    matches:
    - path:
        type: PathPrefix
        value: /bar

EOF

Two HTTPRoute has been created, one for /foo and another for /bar. fault-injection-abort BackendTrafficPolicy has been created and targeted HTTPRoute foo to abort requests for /foo. fault-injection-delay BackendTrafficPolicy has been created and targeted HTTPRoute foo to delay 2s requests for /bar.

Verify the HTTPRoute configuration and status:

kubectl get httproute/foo -o yaml
kubectl get httproute/bar -o yaml

Verify the BackendTrafficPolicy configuration:

kubectl get backendtrafficpolicy/fault-injection-50-percent-abort -o yaml
kubectl get backendtrafficpolicy/fault-injection-delay -o yaml

GRPCRoute

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: gateway.envoyproxy.io/v1alpha1
kind: BackendTrafficPolicy
metadata:
  name: fault-injection-abort
spec:
  targetRef:
    group: gateway.networking.k8s.io
    kind: GRPCRoute
    name: yages
  faultInjection:
    abort:
      grpcStatus: 14
---
apiVersion: gateway.networking.k8s.io/v1alpha2
kind: GRPCRoute
metadata:
  name: yages
  labels:
    example: grpc-routing
spec:
  parentRefs:
  - name: example-gateway
  hostnames:
  - "grpc-example.com"
  rules:
  - backendRefs:
    - group: ""
      kind: Service
      name: yages
      port: 9000
      weight: 1
EOF

A BackendTrafficPolicy has been created and targeted GRPCRoute yages to abort requests for yages service..

Verify the GRPCRoute configuration and status:

kubectl get grpcroute/yages -o yaml

Verify the SecurityPolicy configuration:

kubectl get backendtrafficpolicy/fault-injection-abort -o yaml

Testing

Ensure the GATEWAY_HOST environment variable from the Quickstart guide is set. If not, follow the Quickstart instructions to set the variable.

echo $GATEWAY_HOST

HTTPRoute

Verify that requests to foo route are aborted.

hey -n 1000 -c 100 -host "www.example.com"  http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/foo
Status code distribution:
  [200]	501 responses
  [501]	499 responses

Verify that requests to bar route are delayed.

hey -n 1000 -c 100 -host "www.example.com"  http://${GATEWAY_HOST}/bar
Summary:
  Total:	20.1493 secs
  Slowest:	2.1020 secs
  Fastest:	1.9940 secs
  Average:	2.0123 secs
  Requests/sec:	49.6295

  Total data:	557000 bytes
  Size/request:	557 bytes

Response time histogram:
  1.994 [1]	|
  2.005 [475]	|■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■
  2.016 [419]	|■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■
  2.026 [5]	|
  2.037 [0]	|
  2.048 [0]	|
  2.059 [30]	|■■■
  2.070 [0]	|
  2.080 [0]	|
  2.091 [11]	|■
  2.102 [59]	|■■■■■

GRPCRoute

Verify that requests to yagesservice are aborted.

grpcurl -plaintext -authority=grpc-example.com ${GATEWAY_HOST}:80 yages.Echo/Ping

You should see the below response

Error invoking method "yages.Echo/Ping": rpc error: code = Unavailable desc = failed to query for service descriptor "yages.Echo": fault filter abort

Clean-Up

Follow the steps from the Quickstart guide to uninstall Envoy Gateway and the example manifest.

Delete the BackendTrafficPolicy:

kubectl delete BackendTrafficPolicy/fault-injection-abort

Last modified May 25, 2024: fix api wording (#3467) (5bc5e0f)